2. Square Wave

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An ideal square wave is a simple oscillation between two amplitudes, without any intermediate values:

An ideal square wave

Sampling an ideal square wave doesn't work well for most frequencies.

A sampled ideal square wave

Examination of the result reveals an obvious problem: some cycles have an extra sample. When played, it sounds "muddy". The concepts of the Nyquist limit and harmonics will give better insight into the problem, and point to a solution.